• Nebyly nalezeny žádné výsledky

4. Grammar

4.4 Irish English Use of Prepositons

4.4.4 The Preposition of

Filppula (1999) focuses on the ‘attributive of’ which he describes as “the connection of ‘of’ to form a certain kind of NP structure consisting of two nouns joined by ‘of’. The first noun, although most often itself modified by an adjectival attribute, assumes the function of a kind of adjectival attribute to the second noun with a clearly intensifying force” (238)

There was two Learys and two Murphys, Lawlor, Curtis and Hehir; seven men.

And by all accounts they were all big giants o’ men.

Filppula (1999: 238) says that although this feature of ‘of’ can be also seen in other dialects in the British Isles, in Irish English it “appears to be particularly well-developed and productive…” Joyce (1910/1988: 42, qtd. in Filppula 1999: 239) offers the Irish parallel in the form of construction such as

‘amadán fir’ meaning ‘a fool of a man’ and adds that “it is far more general among us, for the obvious reason that it has come to us from two sources (instead of one) – Irish and English.” Moylan (1996, gtd. in Filppula 1999: 239) states that many of the functions of ‘of’ “are consistent with those of Ir. ‘de’”

such as in amadán de shuine meaning ‘a fool of a person’. To support the Irish origin of this feature Filppula states the existence of the pattern in Hebridean English.

All in all, from the discussion above is obvious that Irish again played an important role in formation of this type of usage of ‘of’ which is especially supported by the presence of a similar pattern in HebE and by the existence of an Irish English equivalent.


Irish English generally adopted many features from Irish – whether phonological, linguistic or stylistic ones. The study offers an account of few peculiarities of the Irish English grammar. It explains that the formation of these special structures was caused by the influence of the Irish language which has played an important role in lives of the Irish. The thesis discusses nuances in distinguishing between several perfective aspects that Irish English enables thanks to the substratal influence. Further it shows an extensive use of the prepositions to convey certain meanings: in StE it would be seen as incorrect, however, a nearer look at the Irish system explains such treatment of the prepositions. Similarly, the thesis clarifies the Irish overuse of the definite article and what is called unbound reflexives. Although in many of the cases concerned a possible superstratal influence can be argued, there still is a strong evidence for at least reinforcing substratal influence.

The aim of the paper was to reveal the way the Irish speak and at the same time to explain a reason of a non-standard usage of English which is a hundreds of years lasting influence of the Irish language.


Amador-Moreno, Carolina P (1 Jan. 2007) “How the Irish speak English: a conversation with T. P. Dolan.” Estudios Irlandeses - Journal of Irish Studies. Retrieved 21 Dec. 2008.


“Europeans and their Languages.” (Feb. 2006). Eurobarometer Special Surveys.

European Commission: Public Opinion. Retrieved 9 March 2009.


Filppula, Markku (1997) “The Influence of Irish on Perfect Marking in Hiberno-English: The Case of the ‘Extended-now’ Perfect.” In Kallen Jeffrey (ed.) Focus on Ireland. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 51-69.

Filppula, Markku (1999) The grammar of Irish English: Language in Hibernian Style. London: Routledge.

Filppula, Markku (2008) “Irish English: morphology and syntax.” In Kortmann Berndt, Clive Upton (eds.)The British Islands, Vol. 1.. Berlin/ New York, Walter de Gruyter. 328-359.

Filppula, Markku, Juhani Klemola, and Heli Paulasto (2008) English and Celtic in Contact. New York: Routledge.

Fritz, Clemens (2006) “Features of Irish English syntax and aspect in early Australia”. In Nevalainen Terttu, Juhani Klemola, Mikko Laitinen (eds.)Types of variation: diachronic, dialectical and typological interfaces.

Amsterdam: Benjamins. 281-301.

“Gaelic: Revitalising Gaelic a National Asset” (1999). The Scottish Government 23 April 2009. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library3/heritage/gtfr-05.asp

Heine, Bernd, and Tania Kuteva (2006) The Changing Languages of Europe.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Henry, Patrick Leo (1977) “Anglo-Irish and its Irish background.” In O’ Muirithe Dairmaid (ed.) The English Language in Ireland. Dublin: Mercier Press.


Hickey, Raymond (2002) A Source book for Irish English. Amsteram:


Hickey, Raymond (2005) “Irish English in the context of previous research.” In Barron, Anne and Schneider, Klaus P. (eds.) The Pragmatics of Irish English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 17-44.

Hickey, Raymond (2007) Irish English: history and present-day forms.

Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Hickey, Raymond. “The Syntax of Irish English.” Irish English Resource Centre.

Universität Duisburg – Essen. Retrieved 19 March 2009. http://www.uni-due.de/IERC/syntax.htm.

“Irish speakers and non-Irish speakers aged 3 years and over in each Province at each census since 1926.” (2002) Census 2002. Central Statistics Office Ireland. Retrieved 9 March 2009.



Kallen, Jeffrey L (1997) “Irish English: Context and Contacts.” In Kallen Jeffrey (ed.) Focus on Ireland. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 1-33.

Mathesius, Vilém. A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis. Ed. Josef Vachek. The Hague: Mouton De Gruyter, 1975.

McCafferty, Kevin (2002) “Sure How would the (imminent) Future Ever Be after Becoming the (Recent) Past? Change in the Irish English “Be after V-ing”

Construction.” University of Tromsø. ERIC. Retrieved 5 March 2009 http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmi ni.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED461999&ERICE xtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED461999.

Odlin, Terence (1991) “Syntactic Variation in Hiberno-English.” In Ureland, P.

Sture and Broderick, George (eds.) Language Contact in the British Isles.

Tübingen: Niemeyer. 597-615.

Oxford English Dictionary. Online edition. Oxford University Press (2009).


"periphrastic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2009. Dictionary.com


Pietsch, Lukas (2009) “Hiberno-English medial-object perfects reconsidered: A case of contact-induced grammaticalisation.” [Accepted for publication in

Studies in Language 33 (2009).] Dr. Lukas Pietsch homepage. Retrieved 5 March 2009.


“Population aged 3 years and over in each County and City within the Gaeltacht, classified by ability to speak Irish and age group” (2007).

Census 2006. Central Statistics Office Ireland. 9 March 2009.



Todd, Loreto (1999) Green English: Ireland's Influence on the English Language. Dublin: O’Brien.

"The Pale" (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 8 March 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/439319/The-Pale.

Siedmund Peter, Lukas Pietsch (2008) “Contact-Induced Change and Linguistic Universals: The Case of Irish English.” In Klaus Stierstorfer (ed.) Anglistentag 2007 in Monster: Proceedings. Trier: WVT. 87-99.