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2020 Tomasz Betley


Prague University of Economics and Business International Business

Diversity management in a multinational company

Author: Tomasz Betley

Thesis instructor: doc. Ing. Zuzana Křečková Kroupová, M.A., Ph.D.

Scholar year: 2020/2021



I hereby declare that I am the sole author of the thesis entitled “Diversity management in multinational company “. I duly marked out all quotations. The used literature and sources are stated in the attached list of references.

In Prague on ... Signature

Tomasz Betley



I hereby wish to express my appreciation and gratitude to the supervisor of my thesis, doc. Ing.

Zuzana Křečková Kroupová, M.A., Ph.D. for her immense knowledge about the topic, continuous support whilst working on my thesis. I would like to express my gratitude to the company and its employees for their willingness to participate in my research; it would be impossible without them. Finally, thanks to my family and friends who supported me not only during the thesis writing, but also during all my student life.



Betley, Tomasz: Diversity management in a multinational company. [Bachelor thesis] – University of Economics, Prague. International Business – Central European Business

Realities. – Thesis instructor: doc. Ing. Zuzana Křečková Kroupová, M.A., Ph.D., Prague: 2021, 52 p.

The main objective of this bachelor thesis was to analyse the diversity management strategy in a chosen company. Major diversity management tools were investigated along with testing their efficiency by looking into the employee satisfaction levels of research sample. To achieve this aim, researcher has conducted in-depth interviews with managerial staff and designed employee satisfaction survey. Theoretical part of the thesis acquaints the reader with the terminology in the field of diversity, presents diversity dimensions and introduces process of revolution of the term. The practical part of the thesis consists of interview results and presentation of major tools used by the company together with results in the field of employee satisfaction levels. Company strives to be a role-model in field of embracing uniqueness of other people and utilising talent of diverse workforce.

Key Words:

diversity, diverse workforce, inclusion, diversity management, employee satisfaction



Betley, Tomasz: Řízení diverzity v multinacionální společnosti. [Bakalářská práce] – Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze. International Business – Central European Business Realities. –

Vedúci práce: doc. Ing. Zuzana Křečková Kroupová, M.A., Ph.D., Prague: 2021, 52 p.

Hlavním cílem této bakalářské práce bylo analyzovat strategii řízení diverzity ve vybrané společnosti. Byly zkoumány hlavní nástroje pro řízení diverzity spolu s testováním jejich efektivity zkoumáním úrovní spokojenosti zaměstnanců zkoumaného vzorku. K dosažení tohoto cíle provedl autor hloubkové rozhovory s vedoucími pracovníky a vytvořil průzkum spokojenosti zaměstnanců. Teoretická část práce seznamuje čtenáře s terminologií v oblasti diverzity, představuje dimenze diverzity a představuje proces evoluce tohoto pojmu. Praktická část diplomové práce se skládá z výsledků rozhovorů a představení hlavních nástrojů používaných společností spolu s výsledky v oblasti úrovně spokojenosti zaměstnanců.

Společnost se snaží být vzorem v oblasti přijímání jedinečnosti ostatních lidí a využití talentu rozmanité pracovní síly.

Klíčová slova:

diverzita, diverzifikovaná pracovní síla, inkluze, řízení diverzity, spokojenost zaměstnanců


Table of Contents

Introduction ... 9

Literature Review ... 11

1. Diversity ... 11

1.1. Understanding of diversity ... 11

1.2. Diversity Dimensions ... 13

1.3. Shift towards inclusion ... 17

2. Diversity Management ... 19

2.1. Definition ... 19

2.2. Evolution of diversity management ... 20

2.3. Policies and implementation ... 22

3. Employee satisfaction aspect ... 27

3.1. Definition ... 27

3.2. Job satisfaction components ... 27

3.3. Diversity impact on job satisfaction ... 29

Methodological part ... 31

1. Research objectives ... 31

2. Research methodology ... 31

2.1. Survey ... 32

2.2. Interview ... 32

Practical part ... 33

1. Sample identification ... 33

2. Research results and interpretation ... 34

2.1. Interview results ... 34

2.2. Survey results ... 37

2.3. Comparison of theoretical part and research outcomes ... 41

2.4. Suggestion for the company regarding diversity management ... 41

Conclusion ... 42

Appendices ... 47


Table of Figures

Figure 1: Iceberg diversity concept ... 15

Figure 2: Primary and secondary dimensions of diversity ... 16

Figure 3: Hackman-Oldham job characteristics model (JCM) ... 28

Figure 4: Respondent's Age ... 40

Figure 5: Respondents Ethnicity ... 40

Table 1: Coding of the Questionnaire Answers ... 37

Table 2: Survey Information ... 38

Table 3: Individual Average Scores per Question ... 38



Diversity is the phenomenon that always accompanied human-beings however it started to become significantly visible throughout last few decades. Globalisation and trade liberalisation has changed meaning of movement forever. People began to travel, do business, and work all around the globe. Increase of heterogeneity challenged multinational corporations to properly adjust to new diverse environment with a use of later established diversity management techniques. Companies need to recognise an importance of valuing its workforce and preventing any act of discrimination.

Diversity management is a relatively new term established in the United States in 1980s.

One of the main triggers behind creation of such management concept was increased diversity in US workforce. After periods of miscommunication and lack of acceptance, US decided to use its diverse workforce as a main competitive advantage. Series of designed programs and policies modified prior attitudes to the point where people understood value of having different backgrounds and cultures. Dimensions of diversity such as gender, race, age, sexual preference are features that enhance the work, widen the horizon of mutual perception, and make the work challenging and exciting.

Main objective of this thesis was to analyse diversity management tools of existing multinational company in Prague. Company is one of the biggest corporations in the world therefore it was interesting to research the backbone of the diversity management structure internally, as one of the active employees. Researcher firstly conducted an in-depth interview with managerial stuff and employee from recruitment to spot diversity management tools used by the company; and followed with the employee satisfaction survey to the to verify efficiency of such tools and general well-being of diverse workforce that happens to work globally, as a global mobility team.

Thesis introduces a reader to topics of diversity, diversity management and employee satisfaction. Literature review contains information concerning definitions of diversity, first recognitions of the term, diversity dimensions, evolution of diversity management and end with meaning and elements of job satisfaction. Structure is followed by earlier mentioned research explanation and its results with researcher’s commentary. Thesis ends with comparison to general trends in diversity management field and short suggestion for company as well.

This topic has been selected because of increasing relevance of the phenomenon, daily intersection with diversity (especially in Prague) and researcher’s scope of interest. As an


employee of multinational company and person surrounded by people from various parts of the world, this work has been exciting journey and a great lesson. Researcher also believes that this work might be useful for future managers in order to recognize best side of diversity, utilise people’s talents and fully appreciate the new age reality.


Literature Review

Aim of this section is to discuss theoretical side of diversity, together with its dimensions and inclusive direction. Subsequently theory will move towards more specific topic that happens to be a main interest of this work – namely: diversity management. There will be a presentation of specific tools with introduction of evolution of such phenomenon. Lastly, as a main goal of the thesis – critical evaluation of diversity management tools requires a look into satisfaction of the workforce. Hence, this section will touch on the employee satisfaction as well, as it is one of the main focuses of this work either.

1. Diversity

This chapter introduces the topic of diversity, its definitions and interpretations proposed by different authors. It also presents dimensional concepts of diversity and touches on evolutionary aspect of the term that sparked the need for establishment of diversity management programs.

1.1. Understanding of diversity

Presence of diversity is quite apparent in today’s world, and it has been a significant part of it for a while, however understanding of such term requires an accurate definition. This, according to the study “Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity” done by Diversity Task Force (Bunton 2000) (formed under The US Department of Commerce) is considered as an immense challenge, eventually aiming at proper illustration of the phenomenon relevance along with its inclusive aspect (Kapoor 2011).

1.1.1. Diversity recognition

First official mentions of the term diversity have their beginnings into an affirmative action discussion in 1978 during the Supreme Court Case Regents of University of California v. Bakke, when Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell wrote: “ […] the attainment of a diverse student body was a compelling state interest because a diverse student body would promote the

“vigorous exchange of ideas” and therefore, “using race as a basis for university admission is a special concern of the First Amendment and important to the state.” (Peterson 1999).

Another entrance of the term was involving management discussion which can be found in 1987 Hudson Institute report, Workforce 2000 (Lorbiecki 2000). It stated that women,


minorities, and immigrants would make up 85 percent of people seeking jobs by the year of 2000 (Kapoor 2011). Report had spread general message that managers will no longer be supervising as homogenous groups as thus far, therefore they should be ready for upcoming trends concerning more and more popular differences in age, gender, race, and ethnicity (Kapoor 2011). Goal of furtherly introduced diversity management programs was to reach new markets and utilise its diverse labour potential by increasing number of female employees as well as minorities (Kapoor 2011). It was supposed to open unknown organizational horizons and stimulate promising individual careers.

On the other hand, true genesis of public diversity recognition can be traced to 1964 and establishment of Civil Rights Acts. Together with Executive Order 11246 and creation of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), these directives were supposed to control and overcome past actions of discrimination by making illegal for companies to hire or manage employees based on their skin colour, race, origin, sex, or religion (Kapoor 2011). Nonetheless, over time companies started to realize that these legal adjustments were insufficient to successfully manage diversity in organizations and that is why they started implementing their own, internal diversity management programs (Kapoor 2011).

1.1.2. Definition of diversity

Diversity is a social construction which is dynamic, plural in nature and it is rather contextual form of human organisation (van Ewijk 2011). Hence, it is not surprising that term does not have a universal expression, moreover it motivates a further research in that field.

Naturally, often it is assigned to more specific types of diversities, however as it is stated above – it does depend on the context and the situation. Additionally, developing universal definition might have been received as disrespectful, in case such term would not include secondary dimensions or any other part of diversity. It could also have an impact on juridical right, social status, financial situation etc. (van Ewijk 2011).

Another issue with universalizing the term would be place of actual diversity development. For instance, taking in the account size of the US minority ethnic population which is more than 25 percent whereas European standards are about 5-6 percent (Wrench 2007) – creates certain contrast in diversity comprehension. Consequently, in the USA historical context had established higher awareness of the phenomenon leading to relatively strong anti- discrimination legislation and affirmative action (van Ewijk 2011).


On the contrary, European focus is more narrowed, shifted towards efficient and gradual integration of foreign labour force. Interesting fact about Europe regarding ways of defining diversity is the utilisation of private sector. On one hand, it is beneficial and promising for all the private organizations increasing awareness through surveys, policy programs, mandatory trainings – on the other: it generates greater imbalance between public sector (van Ewijk 2011).

Historically, concept of diversity was expressed primarily in the legal scope and was formed by the law e.g., Civil Rights Act. This legal definition was aimed at social groups that have been historically discriminated, needed protection and fair opportunities for employment (Ho 2013). Similar groups are also assigned to diversity discussion by UC Berkeley, however with the cause of historical underrepresentation in higher education (Ho 2013).

In managerial field, diversity is defined in both legal and non-legal categories, whilst all of them are considered as creative workforce that can substantially increase organizational efficiency (Ho 2013). In the Academy of Management Review, diversity is defined by Harrison and Klein as “The distribution of differences among the members of a unit with respect to a common attribute X, such as tenure, ethnicity, conscientiousness, task attitude, or pay”

(Harrison 2007).

Some of the other definitions exclude legal aspect and focus on heterogeneity in personality attributes, personal values, work attitudes, education, and lifestyle (Ho 2013), and that not only supports contextual aspect of the diversity as a whole, but logically leads us to next section that distinguishes several dimensions of the term.

1.2. Diversity Dimensions

Diversity can be divided into a set of differently perceived features; hence this segment will demonstrate three multi-dimensional concepts. Theories are mutually correlated and precisely name specific diversity features.

1.2.1. Two-dimensional concept

One of the first concepts of dimensional division of diversity was developed by Marilyn Loden and Judy Rosener in 1991, and since then – it has been a core notion for future development in this field. It differentiates two groups of diversity dimensions; Primary dimensions are relatively basic characteristics that influence one’s identity, however secondary


dimensions are those which are less visible, more specific and have a greater impact on one’s uniqueness (Goyal 2009).

Primary dimensions:

§ Age

§ Race

§ Gender

§ Ethnicity

§ Sexual orientation

§ Mental/Physical abilities and characteristic Secondary dimensions:

§ Education

§ Communication style

§ Income

§ Family status

§ First language

§ Organizational role and level

§ Geographic location

§ Religion

§ Work experience

§ Work style

1.2.2. Three-dimensional concept

So called “Diversity Iceberg” concept developed by Rasoava Rijamampianina and Teresa Carmichael (2005) is a three-dimensional perception of diversity. It is complementation of previous concept with small adjustments in a first two categories and establishment of one the most internal, third dimension.

Primary dimensions include all the characteristics from first model except sexual orientation which is moved to secondary dimensions. They represent the most obvious and visible characteristics with relation to its “above the surface” iceberg interpretation and they are the basis of anti-discrimination laws around the globe (Rijamampianina 2005).


Secondary dimensions represent “just below the surface” characteristics that might be more visible over time, nonetheless they are again more specific and identity constructing (Rijamampianina 2005). In this concept, this category has all the previously mentioned secondary features adding points such as: thinking style, political orientation, and nationality.

Tertiary dimensions form the last group of above-stated concept, and they represent the most influential and inner characteristics. They are the core of one’s identity and lie very deep “below the surface”. It is necessarily to note that there only few recognized in this concept, yet it has been defined as not fully comprehensive (Rijamampianina 2005). List includes following:

§ Beliefs

§ Assumptions

§ Perceptions

§ Attitudes

§ Feelings

§ Values

§ Group norms

Figure 1: Iceberg diversity concept

Source: Rijamampianina and Carmichael (2005). Iceberg Diversity Concept [ONLINE]

Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/fig4_233843900


1.2.3. Four-dimensional concept

Based on Loden & Rosener two-dimensional concept, additional two layers of diversity had been discovered by Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe (1998). First major adjustment was separation of personality feature and setting it as a single, core dimension of the “wheel”

concept, which highlights the significance of one’s personal style (Gardenswartz and Rowe 1998). Second adjustment was to establish fourth, the most external layer of diversity representing organizational dimensions. These are corporate or institutional affiliations that depict individual work experiences in more detailed scope. Middle part of the “wheel” consists of internal and external dimensions that largely reflect Loden & Rosener’s approach as primary and secondary dimensions. Elements that are newly distinguished in external part would be:

appearance, personal habits, and recreational habits.

Figure 2: Primary and secondary dimensions of diversity

Source: Loden and Rosener (1991) Primary and secondary dimensions of diversity [ONLINE]

Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Primary-and-secondary-elements-of-diversity-Source-Hubbard-2004- p32_fig1_272883348

Majority of international companies (e.g., IBM Corporation, General Motors etc.) have been adopting these concepts to incorporate accurate diversity models and spread awareness of the phenomenon. Regarding establishment of successful diversity management policies and


creation of inclusive business environment – the key (or following step) would be in understanding and respecting less obvious, hidden dimensions (Goyal 2009).

1.3. Shift towards inclusion

Inclusion is a positive consequence of diversity, but to establish such circumstance in working environment – Diversity Task Force’s 2001 study suggests putting strong emphasis on including secondary dimensions of an individual and acknowledging their importance (Kapoor 2011).

One of the initial pushes for diversity shifting into inclusion was the fact that people with less visible differences (such as: sexual orientation) can experience discrimination as well; that could in turn harm their work satisfaction and as result – negatively affect work performance (Kapoor 2011). Other reason was relatively outdated definition of diversity and natural pursue of improvement in that area. The study done by M. Carrell (2006) researching the employer’s perception of workforce diversity compared to earlier established definition in the Labour Law Journal indicated that not only organizations have been progressing with their diversity management policies, but also that throughout the process employees were able to identify more characteristics as components of diversity than were found thus far (Kapoor 2011). Another impulse causing broadening definition of diversity was observed by Ollapally and Bhatnager.

It concerned relatively similar groups (e.g., falling into the same primary dimension) and differences occurring within ones, eventually underlining heterogeneity and competitive advantage of diverse force (Kapoor 2011).

Inclusive workplace facilities better solutions along with embracement of employees that do not belong to colloquial “mainstream” (Mor Barak 2000). Most general rules of inclusion range from treating others as you wish to be treated yourself to slightly adjusted so called “platinum rule” where person shall treat the other one as they wish to be treated (Carnevale 1995). Those and many others can be achieved through series of diversity management actions, which have been constantly implemented in a various form since early 2000’s (Mor Barak 2000).

Incorporation of policies leads to numerous benefits of inclusion, nonetheless they could be divided into individual and organization scope. Regarding employee as a single unit: it certainly creates an opportunity by opening higher positions and allowing more exciting career paths, especially for people that had suffered discrimination in the past (e.g., women, minorities). It


also opens channel of effective communication and provides real decision-making power (Mor Barak 2000). Regarding benefits in organizational scope, companies can appreciate improvements in costs savings due to lower turnovers and improved productivity (Mor Barak 2000). Being attractive to minorities can stimulate very efficient marketing operations and sustain major position in competition for new talent on the labour market (Mor Barak 2000).

Subsequently, stock prices of a company could go higher, and in that manner greater brand image is being reached.

Naturally, inclusion also faces obstacles. Major difficulties deal with attitudes and behaviour of employees that essentially lead to prejudice and discrimination; they’re either experienced in an open or more subtle way and are main barriers for successful inclusion embodiment (Mor Barak 2000). If these tendencies are not stopped, they could eventually induce lack of career support, isolated working environment and no job advancement (Mor Barak 2000).

Nowadays, inclusion is very popular topic since it relates to current problems such as immigration challenges, nationalism, or fear of terrorism (J. Bourke 2017). Many international corporations identify as global entities which strive to make religious, gender, generational, and other types of diversity – a safe business reality (J. Bourke 2017). Topics of equality or gender pay equities also bring a lot of public attention, eventually pushing companies to even out disparities. According to Deloitte’s (2017) article “Diversity and inclusion: The reality gap”; it stresses that based on internal research – companies with inclusive talent practices generate up to 30 percent higher revenue per employee and greater profitability than their competitors (J.

Bourke 2017). These kinds of indications will certainly set new course in operational aspect and expansion of global corporations, but also, they could be considered as helpful insight for smaller, local organizations.


2. Diversity Management

Chapter starts with definition of the term, then it is followed by historical background and evolution of such practice over time. Subsequently, specific policies together with their implementation strategies are discussed, displaying some of the crucial tools of today’s world corporate environment.

2.1. Definition

Similarly, as the term diversity, diversity management does not have a single interpretation nor definition. It is rather considered as a set of ideas and practices that have been defined and described in various ways; respectively transformed into management strategies (Fisher 2009). Major purpose of such instrument is positive workforce stimulation and enhancement of organizational efficiency. In other words, through recognizing, valuing and promotion of diversity companies can remain very beneficial in terms of productivity and effectiveness (Fisher 2009).

One of the first definitions, developed by R. S. Kandola and Johanna Fullerton (1998) accentuates productive environment and utilisation of employee’s talent by tackling visible and non-visible differences to meet organizational goals (Fisher 2009). However, over time this comprehension of the term had shifted its course to more inclusive meaning and action. With the example of Schwarz-Wölzl and Maad interpretation (2004), diversity management should be the tool which simultaneously promotes and coordinates differences internally and externally whilst aiming at constant enhancement of company’s success. It is noticeable, that over time appreciation of heterogeneity had become one of the standard managerial goals. On the contrary, according to Mor Barak (2005) term refers to voluntary actions that are designed to establish greater inclusion of employees from various backgrounds through consciously created policies and programmes (Mor 2005). In this case, definition puts more emphasis on inclusion itself rather than organisational benefits. Fine compromise could be considered by slightly more general definition proposed by German Association for Diversity Management (2007), which comprises both honest appreciation and the conscious utilisation of differences for the purposes of gaining market advantage and maximising profits (Fisher 2009).

Naturally, last two points are the primary goals compared to inclusion itself, however for the sake of full comprehension of the phenomenon this paper should also include several of the following benefits that brings a successful diversity management:


- Utilisation of talents by widening scope of potential employees (e.g., finding experts in minority groups etc.) along with improvements in employee satisfaction by appreciation of heterogeneity

- Better perception by partners and customers and more swift communication with them (especially considering agility of globalisation); in other words, stronger market competition and brand image

- Innovation and enhancement of internal processes by increased variety of perspectives; respectively, as previously mentioned higher efficiency

- Avoiding costs of discrimination (e.g., legal penalties due to race discrimination, sexual harassment etc.) (Fisher 2009).

2.2. Evolution of diversity management

Even though development in this matter could be questionable at times, evolution has its beginnings in 1960s with the representation of people such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and many others. Regarding progression of management of workforce diversity, there were three distinguishable strategies/stages that were captured by doctor R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr. (2011).

1) Managing Workforce Representation (1960s)

As earlier referred to, this strategy was predominantly inspired by civil rights movement and the civil rights laws and was primarily focused on achieving workforce pluralism (Roosevelt 2011). It was supposed to be addressed at all individuals that were discriminated in the past (namely: mostly Afro-Americans, later – other ethnic minorities and women) with the aim of including them in the so-called mainstream community (Roosevelt 2011). The other motives were naturally corporate social responsibility and social injustice, that subsequently sparked enforcement of affirmative action and equal opportunity employment (Roosevelt 2011). However, over time strategy has changed its tone once legislative aspect came into force and courts stressed “benefits of diversity” as legitimate justification for use of affirmative action in public education (Roosevelt 2011). At this point, forced pluralism became a trend and motivated organizational leaders to apply tools such as: civil rights laws, affirmative action, equal employment opportunity practices, CEO sponsorship, strategic community alliances and acculturation/assimilation (Roosevelt 2011). Even though accomplishments of this strategy


have been spectacular with greater acceptance, awareness, and representation of minorities in all kinds of sectors, periods of relaxation in sustaining such development resulted in revolving- door phenomenon and glass ceilings for “non-mainstream” units (Roosevelt 2011).

2) Managing Workforce Relationships (1960s)

Complementation of previous strategy, yet this one apart from pluralism (presumably already achieved) draws attention to well relationships within workforce (Roosevelt 2011).

Originally, this strategy came to light to release (or at least reduce) the tension between white and Afro-American communities, which apparently was quite perceptible (Roosevelt 2011).

Additionally, to previously mentioned motives, equalisation, cultural competence, political correctness, elimination of all “isms” and valuing differences – turned into most important goals of this strategy (Roosevelt 2011). The tools that have been used are mainly EEO1 policies, sensitivity trainings and employee resource groups (Roosevelt 2011). Nonetheless, it was found that it is more individual matter than mass assumption whether this approach could be efficient and sustainable (Roosevelt 2011). Moreover, any proof of stagnation or even temporary lack of enhancement (“relaxation period”) could be poorly perceived by other employers or generally any type of stakeholder. Therefore, there is pressure for assimilation/acculturation that rarely is desired by full personnel; this attitude happened to be major challenge of the strategy (Roosevelt 2011). Key accomplishment could be recognized as improved workforce courtesy, nonetheless revolving door, and glass ceiling phenomena – were unavoidable (Roosevelt 2011). Pursuit of being different was questionable by single people, although lack of inclusion could create tensions and adversely impact organizations.

3) Managing Diverse Talent (1980s)

Latest strategy encompasses scope of two prior strategies with significant addition of empowerment management. Principal desire of newest approach is to create proper work environment with the intention of full talent utilisation of the whole workforce structure; this naturally includes demographic pluralism and behavioural paradigms stimulating healthy relationships within employees (Roosevelt 2011). Together with cultural change and adjustments of previous models, this strategy applies special Strategic Diversity Management Process (framework that helps making quality decisions with respect to representation and relationships) and strives for successful empowerment management, which would

1 Equal Employment Opportunity


facilitate and effectively organise work of others, rather than take most of the responsibilities on yourself (Roosevelt 2011). Although the idea seems to be quite promising, results of this strategy are merely visible and relatively difficult to achieve (Roosevelt 2011). In many organizations, so called “doer-management” prevails and management strategy is not achieved due to misconception that such practice is just a poor attempt of affirmative action (Roosevelt 2011).

For now, as R. Roosevelt Thomas Jr. explains, many companies repeat similar mistakes and either fall into relaxation periods when the progress is lost or have no notion of diligent implementation of one strategy (Roosevelt 2011). As mentioned, managing diverse talent has been a challenge, but also – what predominantly U.S. labour sector is been encountering –

“white ceiling” is real and according to statistical side of it: African American men and women are rarely represented in the upper management level (Roosevelt 2011). It might be quite disappointing that after several decades of effort the struggle regarding minority representation still occurs.

Predictions about the future strategy indicate suggestion for merger of all the strategies, most likely in a form of improved strategy of managing diverse talent (Roosevelt 2011).

Recommendations are quite straightforward highlighting significance of using all strategies and constant development of them (Roosevelt 2011). Apart from that, care about social justice, compatibility of diversity management practices according to organizational values and general experimentation – are advised (Roosevelt 2011).

2.3. Policies and implementation

This section depicts some of the specific policies used in a managerial community along with their implementation, which starts before applying any kind of programme – in a form of company analysis. Such research should be conducted on organizational budget for diversity management projects, language of the client, employee turnover and scope of operational countries (Fisher 2009). Employer needs to make sure that organizational values are aligned with applied approaches or enforce adjustments before official execution. Variety of diversity management programmes can be distinguished between three key categories:

1) recruitment programmes aimed at systematically increasing the diversity of employees, 2) programmes increasing cultural awareness through maximising effects of cultural synergy and minimising costs of heterogeneity,


3) and pragmatic management policies directed at increasing flexibility and job satisfaction by taking the needs of a diverse staff into account (Pitts 2005).

To sum up, diversity management policies could be defined as economically based strategies attempting to progress organizational goals, cultures, structures, processes, and reward systems (Besler and Sezerel 2012). Evolution of these policies has its purpose in assimilation, integration, and appreciation of differences. All of that is supported by formal training programs and other activities stimulating diversity management enhancement, which are listed below.

Employee referral programs and other recruitment tools

Employee referral is a recruiting strategy that is used by employers to encourage current employees, through rewarding systems (e.g., referral bonuses, gift cards, recognitions etc.), to refer qualified candidates for jobs in their organizations (Ranade 2021). Currently it is very popular strategy, which not only creates loyalty and increases job satisfaction, but it can also be beneficial as a tool in expanding workforce diversity (Burke 2011). Essentially, such approach turns all employees into recruiters, which after giving out attractive rewards – happens to be quite cost effective for organizations (SHRM 2021). Problem that can potentially arise is a likelihood of referring similar candidates to the ones that already initiated process, which consequently could disbalance recruitment of diverse units. However, this issue might be resolved by clear specification of diverse referrals, guidance of recruitment teams or simply asking communities (Ranade 2021). Regarding legal side of this matter, there is special EEOC2 Compliance Manual which updates a guidance on the prohibition of discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Hansen 2006). The manual says that recruiting only selected colleagues or relying on word-of-mouth recruiting, which involves employee referral programs – may generate negligible existence of diversity in the labour market (Hansen 2006).

Thus, to avoid unintentional discrimination, companies should evaluate all candidates using the same qualification criteria, monitor if the referral program is effective and meets its goals regarding diversity structure (if not – modification of the program is required) or use variety of recruiting methods when advertising job openings (SHRM 2021).

For instance, to enlarge diversity, last year Oracle has launched 2 programs: The Oracle UNCF Corporate Scholars Program (OSCP) and the new Oracle Developer Scholars Program (ODSP) designed for underrepresented students to propel their careers (Team 2020). Internship

2 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission


programs and sponsored scholarships are another efficient tool. They can be promoted through internship hubs, social media, and organizational websites by telling their own story of diversity and making sure they attract gifted representation of minorities (Huhman 2013). Some of the companies go directly to the most talented students based on their study results and exam scores (Huhman 2013). They can also be presented, as well as non-entry level job opportunities, during job fairs and minority conferences (Besler and Sezerel 2012).

Lastly, the other useful and commonly used tool would be staffing, which is accessing employment of workers with unique skills for a special position, usually offering flexible and desired job conditions (Houseman 2001).

Retention tools

Instruments that positively influence workers, adjust to their needs, and offer possibilities of career (or personal) development. Eventually, they strive to keep workforce at the current office premises. This tool can be considered as a combination of retaining talented employees and stimulation of diverse expansion by promoting great brand image and maintaining high level of satisfaction (Cloutier 2015). Scope of the retention tools is wide and whole process must involve relatively high turnover supported by refined strategic plan, that is aligned with operational polices as well as organisational vision (Cloutier 2015). Because hire recruitment and training costs can reach up to even 200% of annual salary of leaving employees, organisations pay attention to candidates having longer history with past employment (Cloutier 2015). Once employer is certain that their new recruit is a perfect fit, it can offer competitive benefits such as: salaries, stock-based compensations, company’s equipment (e.g., car or mobile phone), health insurance, retirement-savings plan, variety of additional trainings (e.g., language classes or interesting software-oriented seminars) etc. (Olenski 2015) Retention is not only connected to tangible equity rewards but it is also highly focused on provision of comfortable work environment and culture. Details like well-adjusted room temperature, ventilation, interesting interior design or pool table, bring great value and subconsciously increase employee engagement (Olenski 2015). Retention should also be responsible for establishment of the five levels of communication: intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational and intercultural to maintain a healthy work culture for its employees (Cloutier 2015).

Another interesting solution are employee resource groups (ERGs). These are employee-led interest groups that raise awareness of issues concerning people of a specific demographic, race,


religion, or sexual identity; these groups enhance inclusive workplace and socially responsible business practices. (Test 2019) Namely, CDW corporation starts from the day one and introduces new hires to their “Connection Nodes” giving a chance for faster internal network creation and possibility of getting acquainted with other co-workers.

Recognition of accomplishments is a key component. From simple “thank you” to public praise during a meeting or important email; validation of colleagues, subordinates, or anyone from organisational stuff – gives that great push of self-gratification and makes a person truly appreciated (Olenski 2015). Perfect occasion for that could be one-to-ones with a manager, team buildings, periodical reviews, newsletters, and after-hours hangouts (Olenski 2015).

Awareness trainings and Leadership

Starting off with the second one, inclusive leadership must be the centrepiece of managing diversity. It is a relationship between leader and follower which triggers more attention to the follower, including their values and perceptions (Jin 2017). Inclusive leadership refers to the leaders who display openness, accessibility, and availability in their interactions with their subordinates; such practice also involves fairness regarding both tangible and intangible rewards (Jin 2017). Other components of this instrument are visible commitment, humility, awareness of bias, curiosity about others, cultural intelligence, and effective collaboration (i.e., team cohesion) (Bourke and Titus 2020). Logically, recognition of accomplishments along with emphatical approach would be entailed here as well.

One of the main responsibilities of leaders and top management is to comprehensively communicate diversity policies to the fellow employees (Fisher 2009). Society for Human Resource Management recommends an explanation of the business case, an explanation of possible effects of diversity management on productivity and the company’s goals, a presentation of the benefits that diversity management brings for each employee, and an explanation of the process of diversity management itself (Fisher 2009).

Studies have shown that inclusive leadership not only prompts creative production and innovation, but also ensures psychological safety and contributes to greater interpersonal risk tasking and sharing, which eventually leads to diversity integration and better work performance (Jin 2017).

Generally, diversity training might be defined as a set of programs aimed at facilitating positive inter-group interactions, reducing prejudice and discrimination, and enhancing the skills, knowledge, and motivation of people to interact with diverse others (Bezrukova 2012). There


are multiple types of diversity trainings; classroom-based lecture, online program, and blended ones (Kulik 2008). Differences in delivery or type of the program may create inconsistency in terms of topic acknowledgment and understanding (Alhejji 2016). Before applying certain program, company should take the time to look inward, collect and assess information about the current company culture, and identify any unresolved issues employees face. Surveys or focus groups are potential sources to gather that information (Fernandes 2020).

According to businessnewsdaily.com, arguably the best and most popular diversity programs available in 2020 were:

1. “Diversity Works” provided by HRDQ (cost: $40 per employee) focused on communication between employees and better understanding within the workforce

2. Variety of trainings concerning sexual harassment, workplace violence, ethics, and sensitivity, provided by Compliance Training Group (cost: $30 per employee)

3. “eCornell” provided by Cornell University; platform that offers a workplace diversity and inclusion program designed for business owners, managers, and HR professionals (cost:

$3,600 one-time payment) (Fernandes 2020).

Above listed collection of tools depicts previously mentioned three genres of diversity management instruments. Nevertheless, implementation process should not end at just application of those practices – evaluation of management effects should follow (Fisher 2009).

That could include analysing variables such as job satisfaction, engagement and behavioural changes among the employees, the development of individual and group achievements, the productivity of the organisation as well as turnover, absenteeism, and profitability (Cox 1993).

Yet, this evaluation might be too difficult at times, considering complexity factors influencing such variables (Fisher 2009).

The other form, or rather slightly different and more practical approach may be taken with so called benchmarking for diversity. It is a process of comparing one company to the other ones by assessing effectiveness of diversity management policies and all their components. For instance, Diversity Collegium organisation offers “Global diversity and inclusion benchmarks”

(GDIB’s) which, with the representation of 80 experts from around the world, analyse and grade up to 13 different categories of processes within an enterprise. Percentage ratings define organizations in what category within 5 different thresholds they remain. Benchmarks can also be used as point of reference for progress and engagement of the staff, flag for consultants and applicants or determination of short-term and long-term goals. (O’Mara 2006).


3. Employee satisfaction aspect

Chapter covers definition of the term, variety of approaches concerning its components and simultaneously areas affecting job satisfaction. Last part describes surfaces of organizational diversity and its possible outcomes on the topic of this chapter.

3.1. Definition

Maintaining high job satisfaction is one of the major responsibilities of the organisations, which consequently transfers positive influence on the work productivity (Ohunakin et. al., 2019). It generally refers to a person’s attitudes about their work or it could rather be pleasurable, positive emotional state of mind resulting from the appraisal of a job (H. S. Pink 2017). It may also be defined as an outcome of the overall nature of the job and person’s expectations, and perceptions of various components of the work environment (Ohunakin 2019).

3.2. Job satisfaction components

Job satisfaction is usually influenced by various situational job characteristics, that could be portrayed by three different approaches. First one, two-factor theory of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) is based on two assumptions: The first assumption is that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on the opposite ends of the same continuum, rather they could be considered as two axes associated with different associated factors (Senad and Mujabašić 2018). The second assumption includes categories of motivation factors: intrinsic (motivators), which are job content factors, and extrinsic (hygiene) which are job context factors (Senad and Mujabašić 2018). Naturally, first group are the components related to the content of employee’s work and are assumed to increase level of job satisfaction, but do not reduce dissatisfaction (Senad and Mujabašić 2018). These are namely: achievement, recognition, interesting work, responsibility, advancement, and growth (Drabe 2015). On the other side, hygiene factors are supposed to decrease job dissatisfaction but do not increase job satisfaction itself. These are specifically: salary company policy and administration, working conditions, supervision and interpersonal relationships with colleagues, status, and security (Drabe 2015).

The second approach, job characteristics model (JCM) of Hackman and Oldham (1976), is one of the most influential theories ever presented in the field of organizational psychology and it


has served as the point of reference for scores of studies and job redesign interventions (Behson, Eddy and Lorenzet 2000). It is a three-staged model, which is established around so called critical psychological states (CPS) which should fully mediate the effects of the core job characteristics (CJC) on relevant individual outcomes (Behson, Eddy and Lorenzet 2000). In other words, Hackman and Oldham developed the model by identification of those psychological states important for job satisfaction and its other aspects, and then worked backwards to identify job characteristics that could evoke key psychological states (Behson, Eddy and Lorenzet 2000). The core job characteristics are task identity, task significance, skills variety, autonomy, and feedback.

Figure 3: Hackman-Oldham job characteristics model (JCM) Source: Hackman and Oldham (1971). Job characteristic model [ONLINE]

Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Hackman-Oldham-job-characteristics-model_fig2_241025725

Third approach, or rather set of characteristics included in the work of psychologist Peter Warr (2007), was based on the research in the field of job satisfaction and it provides deep exploration of simply people being happier in the work environment than the others (Warr 2011). In the book called “Work, happiness and unhappiness” author evaluates different approaches of happiness appraisal, consequences of work satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees and interconnection of mental processes being affected throughout the work experience (Warr 2011). Book depicts number of earlier mentioned characteristics, which are following:


• opportunity for personal control (discretion, autonomy, self-determination),

• opportunity for skills use (skills utilization, chance for learning),

• externally generated goals (job demands, workload, work–family conflict),

• variety (in job content and location, non-repetitive work),

• environmental clarity (information about the future and required behavior),

• contact with others (quantity and quality of interactions),

• availability of money (income level),

• physical security (absence of danger, good working conditions),

• valued social position (status in society, task significance),

• supportive supervision (leader consideration, supportive management),

• career outlook (job security, opportunity for promotion, advancement),

• equity (fairness in one’s employment relationship, morality in an employer’s relationship with society) (Senad and Mujabašić 2018).

3.3. Diversity impact on job satisfaction

Study of George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas examines the two-level diversity’s influence on two individual work outcomes: job satisfaction and organizational turnover intentions. Respective levels are surface-level diversity and deep-level diversity (Cunningham 2004). Heterogeneity at the surface level can be interpreted as the more apparent, visible differences within a group members, such as race, ethnicity, sex, or age (Cunningham 2004).

On the other hand, deep level diversity includes less obvious features such as attitudes, beliefs, and values (Cunningham 2004) (comparable to “iceberg” diversity dimensional concept:

chapter 2). At the surface level, there is an occurring tendency for formation in-group and out- group members. This pattern is created through constant comparison to each other, to self- categorize and place yourself within a group structure (Cunningham 2004). Such process is directly linked to social identity aspect and to natural attempt of achieving high self-esteem (Tajfel 1979). Tendency is a relatively straightforward exercise: in-group members are considered those who are visually like one another (Cunningham 2004). Subsequently, they have propensity for creation closed circles where perception of in-group members is more attractive than out-group members (opposites) (Cunningham 2004). This, phenomenon clearly initiates negative consequences e.g., experience burnouts, insignificant work satisfaction or less


support from a supervisor (all examples assume unit to be an out-group member) and logically calls for organisational intervention (Cunningham 2004). Nearly same pattern is likely to be experienced at deep level, with replacement of desired features by shared values, attitudes, and beliefs, which in turn stimulate interpersonal attraction (Cunningham 2004). This level could be translated to the organizational scope as well, where conception of fitting the organizational values is highly related to employee’s job satisfaction and work performance (Cunningham 2004). According to study’s main findings and testing, deep level dissimilarities have greater impact on individual well-being and group outcomes (e.g., relationship issues or task conflicts) (Cunningham 2004).; therefore, this level should be the centre of focus during workforce construction and management.

Regarding uncontrolled effects of diversity. For instance, demographically diverse teams and organizations can suffer from increased conflict and lower social cohesion (Creek 2019).

Circumstance is then described as a “double-edged nature” because it potentially brings positive (e.g., wider perception scope, creativity range) and negative organizationally relevant outcomes (e.g., discrimination, efficiency regression) (Creek 2019). Yet, negative consequences are often experienced by minorities and most frequently they are the victims of psychological diversity (Madera 2016). Severity of such happening is directly linked to implicit expectations that employee will be treated fairly by their organisation, which as it is commonly known – it might be a miscalculation (Madera 2016). This does not have to happen though if companies follow organisational justice theory. It declares that all employees are concerned with fairness of the procedures and outcomes at their organization, especially by attending to the formal rules and policies, and by being alert to interactions they have at work (Madera 2016). Ultimately, diversity itself initiates the drive for implementation (or further development) of progressive management instruments to mitigate adverse diversity affects, adjust to employees’ desires and constantly improve their happiness and fulfilment (Creek 2019).


Methodological part

Aim of this section is to present and explain research objectives, structure, and methods in addition to theory depicted above. The research consisted of few parts which will be clarified below, together with purpose of such investigation. Exploration in this manner has been extended to multiple methods of researching due to testing differently oriented research questions.

1. Research objectives

The main objective of the thesis was to critically assess diversity management in a specific multinational company in the Czech Republic that claims to conduct operations in this sphere with the help of various tools and solutions. Thus, to scrutinise this objective 2 research questions have been formed. Respectively:

1) “What are the diversity management policies used by the company compared to latest, general trends?” (Trends and tools mentioned earlier in the literature review).

2) “What is the relation between working in diverse company and high employee satisfaction?”, “Does diversity influence a well-being at work?”

The general idea for this work was to go through existing tools that has been explored in first part of the thesis, discover, and find the ones that are being used at the company; and lastly to verify their efficiency by inspecting an employee satisfaction facet. First research question focuses primarily on analysis of the diversity management strategy taken by the company and prompts qualitative research that has been chosen. Second question is related to well-being of employees included in the limited research sample. This sparked for quantitative type of research which was followed by testing earlier established level of satisfaction.

2. Research methodology

Two different types of research were conducted. In this part, there will be a presentation of reasoning behind a decision for the specific type of researching tool, procedure of collection of data, specifics of the method, overall idea for analysis of data gathered and additional information on materials used for this course of action.


2.1. Survey

Questionnaire is one of the most popular techniques of examining variety of topics. In this case, designed set of 20 questions was meant to help to study well-being of the whole sample; naturally assuming it is a diverse community of employees. This researching strategy allows to swiftly gather general data about the sample (i.e., screening data) where researcher could find out information such as age, level of education etc., but also lets the researcher discover what is an experience like in terms of every-day job routine. The questions were created respectively to crucial job elements affecting the well-being, mentioned in the third subchapter of the literature review (“Job satisfaction components”).

Greatest advantages of this method are certainly easiness of participation and pace of results verification. Research was conducted with the use of one of the best survey online providers

“Survio3” in a form of anonymous online questionnaire. Moreover, this method allowed to test earlier formed hypothesis, that level of satisfaction within a sample is relatively high.

Survey remained common rules concerning structure and order of asked questions: starting with objective questions connected to well-being itself within the company, followed by a few questions associated to individual approach/contact with diversity and lastly above- mentioned screening questions aiming to sketch the type of the group that has been tested.

2.2. Interview

More exactly in-depth interview - happened to be a second method of researching for this work known more broadly as a qualitative research technique. It involves asking open- ended questions which subsequently leads to discussion about the subject, which in this case was analysis of the diversity management tools at the company. Choice for this specific type of interview has its argumentation in number of advantages coming from its utilisation.

That is, having chosen this technique – it allowed the researcher to have relatively wider horizon of topics that have been investigated (free structure), along with its conversational form that enabled a researcher to set more relaxed tone of the interview, and in turn this strengthened a bond between group of respondents (Pro 2021). Eventually, researcher has gained more insights that enhanced the work. Researcher scheduled two online call- interviews where he proceeded. Both calls concerned the same research objective – investigation of diversity management tools. However, first one was targeted at specific part

3 https://www.survio.com


of the sample that included only managers of the sample chosen, with the purpose of verification of managerial knowledge in this domain as well as their opinion on the topic.

Second call organised in identical manner was scheduled with recruiter and specialist in diversity management field. Calls were recorded exclusively for researcher use and later verified by researcher again to congregate most relevant data. Researcher has used generic internal communication tool of the firm – Microsoft Teams.

Practical part

Focus of this section is to present results of the conducted research, define a research sample which has been chosen and to elaborate on research outcomes in reference to theoretical part of the thesis. In particular, the most relevant diversity management tools of the company will be revealed, as well as employee satisfaction survey results and all additional insights taken from the respondents.

1. Sample identification

Research sample happened to be one of the key teams in the company, located in Human Resources department in Prague. The team is responsible for overseeing and managing the process of relocating employees all around the world. Team is in constant contact with not only diverse group of travelling units, but also is relatively diverse by itself internally. Day-to-day work schedules involves working with immigration policies, deep knowledge of foreign tax systems and helping employees to properly adapt to new environments (CapRelo 2013).

Researcher is a member of this group, hence choice for the research sample was quite straightforward. However due to company’s preferences, researcher has been limited to test only the team that he works in. It is worth mentioning, that whole company’s structure is similarly diverse as the research sample.


Sample description:

Number of respondents: survey 35, interview 5 (4 managers +1 recruiter) Age range: 21-46

Location: Prague

Ethnicities: Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, African American, Asian, Arabic, Other Positions: Managers, Non-managers

Citizenships: 12 countries Gender: both (77% women) Level of education:

- 22 master’s degrees - 8 bachelor’s degrees, - 5 high school diplomas

2. Research results and interpretation

Researcher has gathered information about company’s tools used for managing diversity, and analysed respondents’ approach to such instruments. In this section interview key findings will be presented and followed by survey results which have tested efficiency of such tools together with full experience of working in diverse environment.

2.1. Interview results

Conversations with managerial staff brought number of insights regarding techniques of conducting diversity management but also verified level of recognition in this field. Interview started with covering process where respondents are directly involved – recruiting. Researcher has identified that there is in fact need for diversification of the workforce, however it does not come directly from the need for diverse workforce per se; it is more connected to the desired skillset of the candidate, best fit for the team and in turn – personality features, salary expectations and potential permanence with the company. In case of research sample by itself (but also regarding whole organisation) the skillset comes down to:

• language abilities (depending on the region of assistance but mainly English, German and Spanish are considered as competitive and useful ones)

• technical expertise, practical knowledge of internal and external tools/programs (very good command of tools such as Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint etc.,)


Respondents claimed that there are rather no major guidelines regarding balancing out diversity ratio as a factor for hiring. Such type of recruitment seemed more as a general form of staffing which in a nutshell would be hiring the right person, at the right time with desired skillset for specific position. Nevertheless, if two applicants would represent similar type of the skillset the next element to consider would be, as mentioned earlier, fit in the team and personality. It does not mean that inclusion does not exist– it does – however, it is more amplified and targeted at already hired labour force.

Regarding recruitment, the other diversity management tool that researcher has touched on were employee referrals. In such case, respondents have confirmed that it is a generally great instrument that has been significantly well performing in Prague due to international demographics of the city and a great image of the company. Employees receive referral bonuses in the amount of approximately 1/3 of the average monthly salary for part-timers, and 2/3 of the average salary for full-timers. This automatically makes every employee an additional recruiter and rewards company in greater amount of quality applicants.

If speaking about referrals, this tool is somewhat linked to another instrument that was covered in the interview – internships. According to words of recruiter, the so-called talent attraction focuses its activities on diversity and inclusion, specifically with major concern in gender equality and increase in number of women within the workforce structure of the firm. Company has established internship experience programs that are 6-months project-based assignments for students and not only. Programs involve online and in-person trainings, meeting and learning from executives, plus building communities with skill-based volunteer opportunities.

Additionally, there is a series of social and networking events involved as well. Promotion of such job opportunities is run through job posting in internal platforms, LinkedIn etc., but also with the use of job fairs. Company claims that it attends various job fairs at different universities in Prague (VŠE, CZU, UNYP) and it also has attended ones in virtual space due to Covid-19.

Gender equality goals are also maintained by strict cooperation with non-profit organisation

“Czechitas.cz” that strives to increase diversity in the world of IT and to fight for a higher level of digital proficiency among women and in the new generation (i.e., youth)4. This kind of operation takes place in subsidiary of the company in Brno, where the tech department is located. Company really puts effort to increase number of women in this department as 90% of employees there are men. Other than that, women in the company have convenience of

4 https://www.czechitas.cz/en


exchanging opinions in a form of online community group which is designed to support them with their personal and professional development.

Throughout years of activity company has established various minority communities and programs building a stronger bond with its employees and creating inclusive surroundings. Best example of those, exceptionally praised in Prague, is for instance Pride Community. This year company has celebrated 20th anniversary of establishment of community that fights for solidarity, inclusion and aims to decrease any act of discrimination affecting LGBT+

community. Naturally, this community conducts its activities not only in Prague, but all around the world in various forms of expression (online lectures, city marches, meet-ups etc.). The other popular and relatively new project which works well in Prague is “Autism at work”. This project pursues inclusion amongst people with autism spectrum providing convenient work facilities and training programs. Company really wants to embrace uniqueness and utilise talents of those people in exchange for great benefits and competitive salaries.

The other communities recognised during interview were ethnic communities, however these are more popular in regions with even higher level of diversity (e.g., USA). Each of these groups have their own virtual space in the company’s portal with open chat and dashboard concerning any activities and special workshops.

Company makes sure every employee has an excess to online trainings with the use of internal learning platform where one can find list of mandatory and additional awareness trainings.

Trainings concern appropriate behavioural approach at work premises and allow to check participants knowledge with number of tests in this field. Training’s purpose is to stop any kind of discrimination and promote diversity and inclusion.

Summary of interview regarding key diversity management tools used by the company:

• job posting and targeting international universities

• employee referrals

• internships

• job fairs

• support for minority groups

• learning platforms and awareness trainings

Company also provides its employees with number of competitive benefits such as competitive salaries, lunch vouchers, luxurious amenities, batch of fully paid sick days etc., however this


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